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Atarax

By X. Esiel. Northwestern State University, Louisiana.

A large percentage of any population buy atarax 10mg line, in varying mission until it has time to develop its own antibodies buy atarax 10mg fast delivery. It is an antibody that pro- the body or a blood transfusion that is not of the same blood vides a first line of defense against invading pathogens and type as itself buy cheap atarax 10mg online. It is There are some substances such as nylon, plastic, or found in large quantities in the bloodstream and protects other Teflon that rarely display antigenic properties. While they have basic similarities, nonantigenic substances are used for artificial blood vessels, each IgA is further differentiated to deal with the specific component parts in heart pacemakers, and needles for hypo- types of invaders that are present at different openings of the dermic syringes. Practically everyone reacts to certain chemicals, for combines five Y-shaped units), it remains in the bloodstream example, the resin from the poison ivy plant, the venoms from where it provides an early and diffuse protection against insect and reptile bites, solvents, formalin, and asbestos. Viral invading antigens, while the more specific and effective IgG and bacterial infections also generally trigger an antibody antibodies are being produced by the plasma cells. For most people penicillin The ratio of IgM and IgG cells can indicate the various is not antigenic, but for some there can be an immunological stages of a disease. In an early stage of a disease there are response that ranges from severe skin rashes to death. The presence of a greater number of IgG Another type of antigen is found in the tissue cells of antibodies would indicate a later stage of the disease. If, for example, a kidney is transplanted, the antibodies usually form clusters that are in the shape of a star. These are called human leukocyte T-cells to help them in location of antigens. Research contin- antigens (HLA), and there are four major types of HLA subdi- ues on establishing more precise functions of this antibody. In order to avoid organ rejection, tis- The antibody responsible for allergic reactions, IgE acts sue samples are taken to see how well the new organ tissues by attaching to cells in the skin called mast cells and basophil match for HLA compatibility with the recipient’s body. In the presence of will also be used to suppress and control the production of environmental antigens like pollens, foods, chemicals, and helper/suppressor T-cells and the amount of antibodies. The hista- Red blood cells with the ABO antigens pose a problem mines cause the nasal inflammation (swollen tissues, running when the need for blood transfusions arises. Before a transfu- nose, sneezing) and the other discomforts of hay fever or other sion, the blood is tested for type so that a compatible type is types of allergic responses, such as hives, asthma, and in rare used. Type A blood has one kind of antigen and type B cases, anaphylactic shock (a life-threatening condition another. A person with type AB blood has both the A and B brought on by an allergy to a drug or insect bite). A person with type A tion for the role of IgE in allergy is that it was an antibody that blood would require either type A or O for a successful trans- was useful to early man to prepare the immune system to fight fusion. Type B blood would 27 Antibody and antigen WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY described her experience in a letter to a friend. Children who were injected with pus from a smallpox victim did not die from the disease but built up immunity to it. Rejected in England by most doctors who thought the practice was bar- barous, smallpox vaccination was adopted by a few English physicians of the period. By the end of the eighteenth century, Edward Jenner (1749–1823) improved the effectiveness of vaccination by injecting a subject with cowpox, then later injecting the same subject with smallpox. The experiment showed that immu- nity against a disease could be achieved by using a vaccine that did not contain the specific pathogen for the disease. In the nineteenth century, Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) proposed the germ theory of disease. He went on to develop a rabies vaccine that was made from the spinal cords of rabid rabbits. Through a series of injections starting from the weakest strain of the disease, Pasteur was able, after 13 injections, to prevent the death of a child who had been bitten by a rabid dog. There is now greater understanding of the principles of vaccines and the immunizations they bring because of our knowledge of the role played by antibodies and antigens within the immune system. Vaccination provides active immu- nity because our immune systems have had the time to recog- nize the invading germ and then to begin production of Binding of an antibody with an antigen, as detected using X-ray specific antibodies for the germ. Since O has no For research purposes there were repeated efforts to antigens, it is considered to be the universal donor. Type AB is obtain a laboratory specimen of one single antibody in suffi- the universal recipient because its antibodies can accept A, B, cient quantities to further study the mechanisms and applica- AB, or O.

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Entries written in black ink are more legible than blue or other coloured inks when photocopied cheap atarax 10mg amex. This is primarily to ensure that the clinician is able to recall the details and record them as accurately as possible generic atarax 25mg visa. Second 10 mg atarax, the most up-to-date information is then available to any health professional accessing the health record of the client. Clinicians must also be aware that evidence for use in court must be from a record that is contemporaneous with the event to which it relates (Quantum Development 2000). The Department of Health recommends recording information as soon as possible after the con­ tact and at least within the same working day. Any delay in recording notes may reduce the credibility of the professional in any complaint. HOW TO RECORD INFORMATION 33 Summary Points ° Information needs to be accurate, complete, relevant and accessible if it is to be of use to the health professional, whether this is a clinician, manager or administrator. It is not meant to be a definitive account, and the reader is advised to refer to the relevant legislation, health service circulars and guidance notes for a full and com­ plete account. Professional bodies and employers also provide standards in relation to health records management. There are four main issues to be considered in the management of health information: 1. Accountability A health record is a document that contains information about the physical or mental health of an identified individual, which has been made by or on behalf of a health professional in connection with the care of that individ­ ual (Data Protection Act 1998). Although the majority of records are pa­ per based (manual records), there are an increasing number of computer-based notes (electronic records). Health information may also be recorded in other ways such as on audio or visual cassette and CD-ROM. All NHS records are deemed public records under the Public Records Act (1958), and there are various levels of accountability relating to their management. The clinician is responsible for any records he or she creates 34 THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK 35 or uses. However, it is the NHS Trust or health authority that usually has ownership and copyright of these records (NHS Executive 1999). Chief executives and senior managers in these organisations are personally ac­ countable for the quality of the systems for managing records. Use and protection of client information A clinician has always had a common-law duty of confidentiality to his or her clients. In addition health records are covered by the Data Protection Act (1998), which stipulates that all processing of data must be fair and lawful within the context of common law. Therefore clinicians, NHS or­ ganisations and so on must comply with the common law of confidential­ ity when processing personal health information. Clinicians also have a duty to uphold their professional ethical code to keep client information confidential. A review of how the NHS manages and protects client information used for non-clinical purposes was carried out by a committee chaired by Dame Fiona Caldicott. Its report in 1997 made a number of recommenda­ tions for improving confidentiality and ensuring that access to personal health data was strictly on a need to know basis. Caldicott guardians have been appointed in all NHS organisations with the remit to oversee the safeguarding of confidentiality. The role is mainly advisory but the guard­ ian may help in the implementation of improvements. Clients must be informed about the different purposes for which infor­ mation is collected about them and with whom it may be shared (NHS Ex­ ecutive 1996). Information is gathered primarily to plan and deliver optimum health care to the client. However there are a number of other important uses that include ensuring effective health care administration (for example, clinical audit and risk management), teaching and research. The Department of Health recommends that clients are told how in­ formation might be shared before they are asked to provide it. This might be through the use of general information contained in leaflets and specific discussions between the client and the clinician as part of joint care plan­ ning.

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The anthropologist Robert Murphy purchase atarax 25mg with mastercard, who had a spinal tumor buy generic atarax 25 mg on line, found that something changed when he started using a wheelchair: Not long after I took up life in the wheelchair generic 10 mg atarax otc, I began to notice other curious shifts and nuances in my social world. After a dentist patted me on the head in 1980, I never returned to his office.... I am now a white man who is worse off than they are, and my subtle loss of public standing brings me closer to their own status. We share a common position on the pe- riphery of society—we are fellow Outsiders. During my first couple of years in the wheelchair, I noticed that men and women responded to me differently. My peer group of middle-aged, middle-class males seemed most menaced by my dis- ability, probably because they identify most closely with me. On the other hand, I found that my relations with most women of all ages have become more relaxed and open. A department of medicine chairman once patted me on the head—affectionately, I think. When I roll around the hospital, the cleaning staff often greet me, while many physicians gaze fixedly above my head. These behaviors symbolize societal attitudes and have practical consequences too. Traveling by wheelchair on busy Manhattan streets is particularly unnerving. Stereotypical New Yorkers look straight ahead, rushing for- ward at full throttle, intent on their destination. They pirouette away in near misses that are heart-stopping (my heart, that is), surging onward, not glancing down. Yet other New Yorkers are at my eye level: I face the beseeching pleas of homeless people huddled on the pavement. Hair flying, arms cradling her briefcase, she sprinted, eyes fixed on the television monitor overhead. I didn’t veer out of her way 216 W heeled Mobility quickly enough, and she went sprawling. I felt terrible and now stop dead in my tracks whenever I see anyone running toward me. Because wheelchair users are the height of children, Mairs suggests, so- ciety will “demand little of her beyond obedience and enough self-restraint so that she doesn’t filch candy bars at the checkout counter” (1996, 62). Sally Ann Jones was ticketed for speeding in her car: The town’s courtroom is upstairs from the police department, and there’s no elevator. They don’t know what to do with me exactly, and they’re very deferential: Do I want a cup of coffee? The bailiff came down after about half an hour, and he said, “The judge apologizes, Mrs. Jones, that the building isn’t accessible and that you have to stay down here. But he’ll come down and hear your case in about a half an hour if you can wait. In about another half an hour, the bailiff came down and said, “We’re just so busy the judge is not going to get down here. And then the bailiff came downstairs, and he said, “The judge is sure you probably won’t do that again, that you’ll be more sensitive. He said we’re going to waive the ticket because you’ve been sitting here for so long. I actually thought to myself, well, finally there’s some benefit to being handicapped—NOT! Faulty Equipment With increasingly complicated mechanisms and electronic circuitry, equip- ment can falter or fail. Once an airline bent the heavy metal steering shaft of my scooter so badly that it no longer worked.

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Qualitative versus quantitative inquiry Over the years there has been a large amount of complex discussion and argument surrounding the topic of re- search methodology and the theory of how inquiry should proceed cheap atarax 25mg with visa. Much of this debate has centred on the issue of qualitative versus quantitative inquiry – which might be the best and which is more ‘scientific’ buy atarax 10 mg on line. Different meth- odologies become popular at different social cheap atarax 25 mg mastercard, political, historical and cultural times in our development, and, in my opinion, all methodologies have their specific strengths and weaknesses. At the end of this chap- ter references are given if you are interested in following up any of these issues. Certainly, if you were to do so, it 16 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS would help you to think about your research methodology in considerable depth. Deciding which methodology is right for you Don’t fall into the trap which many beginning (and ex- perienced) researchers do in thinking that quantitative re- search is ‘better’ than qualitative research. Neither is better than the other – they are just different and both have their strengths and weaknesses. What you will find, however, is that your instincts probably lean you towards one rather than the other. Listen to these instincts as you will find it more productive to conduct the type of re- search with which you will feel comfortable, especially if you’re to keep your motivation levels high. Also, be aware of the fact that your tutor or boss might prefer one type of research over the other. If this is the case, you might have a harder time justifying your chosen methodology, if it goes against their preferences. EXAMPLES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLGIES Action research Some researchers believe that action research is a re- search method, but in my opinion it is better under- stood as a methodology. In action research, the researcher works in close collaboration with a group of people to improve a situation in a particular setting. The researcher does not ‘do’ research ‘on’ people, but instead works with them, acting as a facilitator. There- fore, good group management skills and an under- standing of group dynamics are important skills for HOW TO DECIDE UPON A METHODOLOGY / 17 the researcher to acquire. This type of research is pop- ular in areas such as organisational management, com- munity development, education and agriculture. Action research begins with a process of communica- tion and agreement between people who want to change something together. Obviously, not all people within an organisation will be willing to become co-researchers, so action research tends to take place with a small group of dedicated people who are open to new ideas and willing to step back and reflect on these ideas. The group then moves through four stages of planning, acting, observing and reflecting. This process may hap- pen several times before everyone is happy that the changes have been implemented in the best possible way. In action research various types of research meth- od may be used, for example: the diagnosing and eval- uating stage questionnaires, interviews and focus groups may be used to gauge opinion on the proposed changes. Ethnography Ethnography has its roots in anthropology and was a popular form of inquiry at the turn of the century when anthropologists travelled the world in search of remote tribes. The emphasis in ethnography is on describing and interpreting cultural behaviour. Ethnographers im- merse themselves in the lives and culture of the group being studied, often living with that group for months on end. These researchers participate in a groups’ activ- ities whilst observing its behaviour, taking notes, con- ducting interviews, analysing, reflecting and writing 18 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS reports – this may be called fieldwork or participant ob- servation. Ethnographers highlight the importance of the written text because this is how they portray the cul- ture they are studying. Feminist research There is some argument about whether feminist inquiry should be considered a methodology or epistemology, but in my opinion it can be both. Epistemology, on the other hand, is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification.

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