By K. Gambal. Union College.

Statements that cannot be objectively measured or objectively determined to be true or false are not within the domain of scientific inquiry buy artane 2 mg on line. Values are personal statements such as “Abortion should not be permitted in this country cheap artane 2 mg fast delivery,‖ “I will go to heaven when I die order artane 2mg on-line,‖ or “It is important to study psychology. Examples are “There were more than 21,000 homicides in the United States in 2009,‖ or “Research demonstrates that individuals who are exposed to highly stressful situations over long periods of time develop more health problems than those who are not. For instance, science may be able to objectively measure the impact of unwanted children on a society or the psychological trauma suffered by women who have abortions. The effect of capital punishment on the crime rate in the United States may also be determinable. This factual information can and should be made available to help people formulate their values about abortion and capital punishment, as well as to enable governments to articulate appropriate policies. Values also frequently come into play in determining what research is appropriate or Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. There were more than 30,000 deaths caused by handguns in the Handguns should be outlawed. More than 35% of college students indicate that blue is their Blue is my favorite color. Although scientists use research to help establish facts, the distinction between values and facts is not always clear-cut. Sometimes statements that scientists consider to be factual later, on the Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Although scientific procedures do not necessarily guarantee that the answers to questions will be objective and unbiased, science is still the best method for drawing objective conclusions about the world around us. When old facts are discarded, they are replaced with new facts based on newer and more correct data. Although science is not perfect, the requirements of empiricism and objectivity result in a much greater chance of producing an accurate understanding of human behavior than is available through other approaches. Levels of Explanation in Psychology The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and [7] cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shown in Figure 1. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, & [8] Nahas, 2009). At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything. All levels of explanation, from biological to personal to cultural, are essential for a better understanding of human behavior. The questions psychologists pose are as difficult as those posed by doctors, biologists, chemists, physicists, and [10] other scientists, if not more so (Wilson, 1998).

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Some odontologists will empathize with this challenge buy artane 2mg visa, knowing that in clinical dental cases dental laboratories must rely almost exclusively on the infor- mation submitted on the work request form cheap artane 2mg with amex. Depending on the quality and experience of the dental laboratory buy generic artane 2 mg line, if the clinician submits poor or incom- plete information or fawed casts or impressions, then the lack of clarity will certainly be refected in the fnal product. Unfortunately, the surge in samples and the unrelenting public call for imme- diacy will complicate the communications efort even further. Team members may also be required to select the best possible material from each of numerous fragmented human remains in order to provide a primary identifcation or the genetic basis for reassociation of body parts. Most fre- quently, natural disasters tend to require the former approach to sampling, whereas transportation accidents and terrorist events are more likely to have a greater need for reassociation. Tey must understand the criticality of the anatomical description and the unique numbering of samples, plus be able to handle a Stryker saw, tissue forceps, and scalpel with skill and safety. Odontologists and anthropologists are usually good choices for the collection team, but death investigators and emergency medical personnel are good alternatives. Te trauma surround- ing the event and subsequent environmental conditions will adversely afect the sof tissue frst by fragmentation and later by decomposition. Although skeletal muscle is an easy sample to collect at the morgue and relatively simple to process at the laboratory, the condition of the remains may necessitate the collection of samples of bones and even teeth instead. Clumps of hair, skin faps, and sof tissue that are predominantly composed of adipose tissue all cause additional steps in laboratory processing and should be avoided when possible. Tissue, bone, or tooth samples should be placed in a secure container without any preservative. Urine specimen cups may leak, glass containers could break, and small plastic bags are subject to puncture. Conical tubes with screw caps easily accommodate 5 to 25 g samples of sof tissue, bone, or tooth, do not leak, and have a smooth exterior surface for handwritten or adhesive labels. Plus, enforcing their use actually limits the amount of sample that an overly enthusiastic anthropologist, odontologist, or pathol- ogist can submit from a single source. Tis reduces the long-term storage 118 Forensic dentistry requirements of the laboratory and forces the collection team to focus on the selection of the best quality material while reducing unnecessary cutting of the remains. Te family members that appear at the Family Assistance Center are not always the best genetic candidates for family references. Furthermore, most out-of-town family members may not linger long afer the initial event. For these reasons, as much information regarding the victim’s genetic tree and the whereabouts of other relatives must be obtained on the frst interview with the next of kin. Given the emo- tional displacement of family members afer a disaster, predesigned forms that include family tree templates will help distraught relatives place them- selves and others in the proper genetic relationship. Individually labeled and sealed 50 ml conical tubes are placed in heavy-duty clear zip-lock plastic bags. Depending on the size of the bags, three to fve tubes can be placed in a single bag. First, if leakage occurs from a tube, it limits the potentially contaminating exposure to a limited number of other samples, and it also reduces the likelihood that numerous labels will become smudged or illegible. Second, when working with very large numbers of samples, the plastic bag simplifes the moving of evidence to and from the laboratory or in and out of storage. If precoordinated with the laboratory, collection teams can even use the bags to batch samples according to their priority. Te 16-quart size or larger allows ample room for bags of ice or reusable ice packs to keep samples cold during transportation. If samples cannot be transferred to the laboratory immediately, they should be kept in a cool, dark, dry environment, preferably at –20°C. Samples may be shipped using a commercial courier, but a courier rotating directly and only between the morgue and laboratory, maintaining wireless communication with both sites, and possessing security clearances at both sites is highly desirable.

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Psychologists have devised a way of testing the sensory adaptation of the eye by attaching an instrument that ensures a constant image is maintained on the eye’s inner surface generic artane 2 mg visa. Participants are fitted with a contact lens that has miniature slide projector attached to it order 2mg artane overnight delivery. Because the projector follows the exact movements of the eye buy artane 2mg, the same image is always projected, stimulating the same spot, on the retina. The image will begin to vanish, then reappear, only to disappear again, either in pieces [6] or as a whole. One of the major problems in perception is to ensure that we always perceive the same object in the same way, despite the fact that the sensations that it creates on our receptors changes dramatically. The ability to perceive a stimulus as constant despite changes in sensation is known asperceptual constancy. When it is closed, we see it as rectangular, but when it is open, we see only its edge and it appears as a line. But we never perceive the door as changing shape as it swings—perceptual mechanisms take care of the problem for us by allowing us to see a constant shape. When you are outdoors, both colors will be at their brightest, but you will still perceive the white t-shirt as bright and the blue jeans as darker. When you go indoors, the light shining on the clothes will be significantly dimmer, but you will still perceive the t-shirt as bright. This is because we put colors in context and see that, compared to its surroundings, the [7] white t-shirt reflects the most light (McCann, 1992). In the same way, a green leaf on a cloudy day may reflect the same wavelength of light as a brown tree branch does on a sunny day. Illusions occur when the perceptual processes that normally help us correctly perceive the world around us are fooled by a particular situation so that we see something that does not exist or that is incorrect. Square A in the right-hand image looks very different from square B, even though they are exactly the same. The line segment in the bottom arrow looks longer to us than the one on the top, even though they are both actually the same length. It is likely that the illusion is, in part, the result of Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The illusion is caused, in part, by the monocular distance cue of depth—the bottom line looks like an edge that is normally farther away from us, whereas the top one looks like an edge that is normally closer. The moon illusion refers to the fact that the moon is perceived to be about 50% larger when it is near the horizon than when it is seen overhead, despite the fact that both moons are the same size and cast the same size retinal image. The skyline of the horizon (trees, clouds, outlines of buildings) also gives a cue that the moon is far away, compared to a moon at its zenith. If we look at a horizon moon through a tube of rolled up paper, taking away the surrounding horizon cues, the moon will immediately appear smaller. The monocular depth cue of linear perspective leads us to believe that, given two similar objects, the distant one can only cast the same size retinal image as the closer object if it is larger. Illusions demonstrate that our perception of the world around us may be influenced by our prior knowledge. But the fact that some illusions exist in some cases does not mean that the perceptual system is generally inaccurate—in fact, humans normally become so closely in touch with their Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The close relationship between people and their environments means that, although illusions can be created in the lab and under some unique situations, they may be less common with active observers in the real [9] world (Runeson, 1988). The Important Role of Expectations in Perception Our emotions, mind-set, expectations, and the contexts in which our sensations occur all have a profound influence on perception. People who are warned that they are about to taste something bad rate what they do taste more negatively than people who are told that the taste won’t be so [10] bad (Nitschke et al. Similarly, participants who see images of the same baby rate it as stronger and bigger when they are told it [12] is a boy as opposed to when they are told it is a girl (Stern & Karraker, 1989), and research participants who learn that a child is from a lower-class background perceive the child’s scores on an intelligence test as lower than people who see the same test taken by a child they are told is [13] from an upper-class background (Darley & Gross, 1983).

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Sympathomimetic drugs stimulate andrenergic receptors and are classified into three categories according to its effect on organ cells buy artane 2 mg online. Indirect-acting sympathomimetics—stimulate the release of norepineph- rine from terminal nerve endings discount 2 mg artane. Mixed-acting sympathomimetics—have the effect of both direct-acting sympathomimetics and indirect-acting sympathomimetics generic artane 2 mg with mastercard. They simulate the adrenergic receptor sites and stimulate the release of norepinephrine from terminal nerve endings. Ephedrine is an example of a mixed-acting sympathomimetic and is used to treat idiopathic orthostatic hypotension and hypotension resulting from spinal anesthesia. Ephedrine also stimu- lates beta2-receptors to dilate bronchial tubes and is used treat mild forms of bronchial asthma. For example, epinephrine (Adrenalin) acts on alpha1-, beta1-, beta2-receptor sites. These receptor sites include an increase in blood pressure, pupil dilation, increase in heart rate (tachycardia), and bronchodilation. Alpha-adrenergic blockers inhibit the response at the alpha-adrenergic recep- tor sites. There are two types of alpha-adrenergic blockers: selective and nonse- lective blockers. Doxazosin (Cardura) is a selective alpha1-blocker and phentolamine (Regitine) is a nonselective alpha adrenergic blocker. However, alpha-adrenergic blockers can cause orthostatic hypotension (drop in blood pressure when an individual stands up), dizziness, and reflex tachycar- dia. Beta-adrenergic blockers (see chart)—also known beta blockers—decrease heart rate and decrease blood pressure resulting in bronchoconstriction. For example, metoprolol tartrate (Lopressor) is a selective beta- adrenergic blocker that blocks beta1 receptors to decrease pulse rate and decrease blood pressure. Selective Beta Adrenergics Metoprolol tartrate Management of hypertension, angina pectoris, postmyocardial (Lopressor)—beta1 infarction. Acetylcholine (Ach) is a neurotransmitter located in the ganglions and terminal nerve endings of parasympathetic nerves that connect to receptors in organs, tissues, and glands. Some cholinergic med- ications are selective and affect either muscarinic receptor or nicotinic receptors while other cholinergic medications are non-specific and affect both receptors. Indirect-acting cholinergic drugs inhibit the action of cholineresterase (acetyl- cholinesterase) by forming a chemical complex that permits acetylcholine to per- sist and attach to the receptor. Pilocarpine is a commonly used direct-acting cholinergic that is used to treat glaucoma. Pilocarpine reduces intraocular pressure by constricting pupils and opening the Canal of Schlemm enabling aqueous humor (fluid) to drain. A reversible inhibitor binds to the cholinesterase enzyme for a period of time and then unbinds enabling the cholinesterase enzyme to properly function. Other effects include a decreased heart rate and blood pressures while increas- ing secretion of the salivary glands. Anticholinergics Anticholinergics drugs (see chart) inhibit acetylcholine by occupying the acetyl- choline receptors. Anticholinergics are also called parasympatholytics, choliner- gic blocking agents, cholinergic or muscarinic antagonists, antiparasympathetic agents, antimuscarinic agents, or antispasmodics. Antiparkinsonism-Anticholinergic Drugs Antiparkinsonism-anticholinergic drugs are used to treat the early stages of Parkinson’s disease. These are typically combined with levodopa to control parkinsonism or alone to treat pseudoparkinsonism. These are the parkinsonism- like side effects of phenothiazines, which is an antipsychotic medication. Drugs for Parkinsonism Parkinsonism, better known as Parkinson’s disease, is a chronic neurological disorder that affects balance and locomotion at the extrapyramidal motor tract. Rigidity is the abnormal increase in muscle tone that causes the patient to make postural changes such a shuffling gate, the chest and head is thrust forward, and knees and hips are flexed.

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